Upgrading Liferay

Liferay upgrades are fairly straightforward. A consistent set of steps is all you need to follow to upgrade a standard Liferay installation. Things do get more complicated if your organization has used Ext plugins to customize Liferay. It’s possible that API changes in the new version will break your existing code. This, however, is usually pretty easy for your developers to fix. Portlet plugins which use Liferay APIs should be reviewed and their services rebuilt against the new release. Theme plugins may require some modifications to take advantage of new features, and if they’re using Liferay APIs, they should be reviewed. Much effort has been made to make upgrades as painless as possible; however, this is not a guarantee everything will work without modification. Ext plugins are the most complicating factor in an upgrade, so it is important to test as much as possible.

Prior to Liferay 6.1 SP2, you could upgrade only from one major release to the next major release. For example, you could upgrade directly from Liferay 5.2.x to 6.0.x, but not from 5.1.x to 6.0.x. If you needed to upgrade over several major releases, you needed to run the upgrade procedure for each major release until you reached the release you want. This doesn’t mean you needed to run the procedure for every point release or service pack; you only needed to run the procedure for the major releases. A good practice was to use the latest version of each major release to upgrade your system.

Liferay introduced the seamless upgrade feature with Liferay 6.1. Seamless upgrades allow Liferay to be upgraded more easily. In most cases, pointing the latest version of Liferay to the database of the older version is enough. Of course, before upgrading, you should test the upgrade in a non-production environment. You should also always back up your database and other important information and make all the other appropriate preparations that we’ll discuss in the section.

Now that we’ve discussed the general philosophy of upgrading, let’s outline the procedure for upgrading to Liferay 6.2.

Preparing for an Upgrade

Before you begin upgrading Liferay to a new version, consider your current Liferay installation. If you’re running Liferay EE, is it patched to the most recent Service Pack level? If not, refer to the section on Patching Liferay before you upgrade; the upgrade process is designed to occur on a fully patched Liferay. If you’re running Liferay CE, make sure you have the latest GA release.

Now that Liferay is updated to the latest release of its current version, the first upgrade task is to size up your situation. Do this by asking yourself a few questions from the chart below. First: What version of Liferay was the first version you installed? If it was 6.0 or 6.1, there are fewer steps, because you won’t have to worry about migrating your permission algorithm. If, however, you never upgraded to permissions algorithm 6 or you’re still running a 5.x Liferay, you need to migrate to algorithm 6 before attempting to upgrade to Liferay 6.2.

Next, if you’ve used Liferay’s Web Content Management system, it’s possible that you have structure with elements in them that have the same name. This is not supported on Liferay 6.2. To fix this, you’ll have to identify the offending structures and fix them. Liferay provides a script to help you with that.

If you’re upgrading from a version of Liferay older than 6.1, you must migrate your image gallery over to Documents and Media. Finally, take note of all the plugins you have installed. Every plugin must be updated to run on the current release. This is easy to do with Marketplace: after you bring up Liferay 6.2, install from Marketplace any of the plugins you had installed previously. For custom plugins, have your development team update them to run on the new version of Liferay.

Figure 2.3: Use this flowchart to determine the steps to take for your upgrade.

Figure 2.3: Use this flowchart to determine the steps to take for your upgrade.

The flowchart illustrates the procedure described above. Use it to determine your course of action for the upgrade. Each step is described fully below so that you can perform your upgrade as efficiently as possible. Be sure to test the upgrade in a non-production environment before upgrading your production Liferay instance.

Let’s look at the preparatory tasks you should perform one by one.

Migrate to Algorithm 6

If your Liferay installation has existed for a while, you might be on a different permission algorithm than the one that’s available in Liferay Portal 6.1. Permission algorithms 1-5 were deprecated in Liferay Portal 6.0 and were removed in 6.1, which means you must migrate before you upgrade.

If you’re on Liferay 5.2 or below, you must upgrade to the latest available release of Liferay 6.0 first. Please follow the instructions in the Liferay Portal Administrator’s Guide to do this. We will assume for the rest of this section that you have upgraded to Liferay 6.0 but that’s it’s configured to use an older algorithm than algorithm 6.

The first thing you need to do, if this is not done already, is to upgrade your Liferay installation to algorithm 5. If you’ve already done that, great! You can skip the rest of this paragraph. If not, shut down your server, edit your portal-ext.properties file, and modify/add the following property so that it reads like this:


Restart your server. As Liferay starts, it upgrades your permissions algorithm to algorithm 5. Review your system to make sure that your permissions configuration is working properly (it should be).

Next, log in as an administrator and navigate to the Control Panel. Go to Server Administration and select Data Migration from the menu along the top of the screen. A section entitled Legacy Permissions Migration appears at the bottom of the page.

Figure 2.4: Update your permissions algorithm by clicking the Execute button.

Figure 2.4: Update your permissions algorithm by clicking the *Execute* button.

Algorithms 5 and 6 do not support adding permissions at the user level. If you have permissions set for individual users, the converter can simulate this for you. To do this, it auto-generates roles for each individual permission, and then assigns those roles to the users who have individualized permissions. If you have a lot of these, you’ll likely want to go through and clean them up after the conversion process. To generate these roles, check the Generate Custom Roles box. If you do not generate the roles, all custom permissions set for individual users are discarded.

Click Execute to convert all existing users and roles to algorithm 6. When the process completes, shut down your server. Edit your portal-ext.properties file and modify the algorithm property to show that you’re now using algorithm 6:


Restart your server. Congratulations! You’ve successfully migrated your installation to use the latest, highest performing permissions algorithm. Next, you’ll find out if you have any Web Content structures to fix before upgrading.

Find and Remove Duplicate Field Names

If you make use of the Web Content Management system, you’ve probably created a library of structures and templates to help you manage your content. In prior versions of Liferay, it was possible to create structures that had multiple fields with the same name. Because this is no longer supported in Liferay 6.2 (EE as of Fixpack 50 or CE as of 6.2.4 GA5), these structures must be changed so none of their fields have duplicate names. If you try to upgrade and you have duplicated field names in your structures, the upgrade will fail.

To identify these structures, Liferay has provided Groovy scripts you can run in the script console:

To execute the script, go to the Control PanelServer AdministrationScripts. Make sure Groovy is the selected language and paste in the script for your version of Liferay. Click Execute.

The script produces output in the server log. Your best possible result would be this:

INFO  [NormalizeDuplicateFields:?] *** RESULTS ***
INFO  [NormalizeDuplicateFields:?] *** There are no structures with duplicate fields. You can proceed with the upgrade ***

This means you have no offending Web Content structures! Skip the rest of this and proceed to the next step.

If you’re still reading, you saw something different in your logs, something similar to this:

INFO  [NormalizeDuplicateFields] *** RESULTS ***
INFO  [NormalizeDuplicateFields] *** 12 structures with duplicate fields ***
INFO  [NormalizeDuplicateFields] *** 40 templates to modify manually ***
INFO  [NormalizeDuplicateFields] *** 5695 web contents automatically processed ***
INFO  [NormalizeDuplicateFields] *** 79 web contents can not be processed since they were out of sync prior to execute this script ***
INFO  [NormalizeDuplicateFields] *** 3 DDM Structures with duplicate fields automatically processed ***
INFO  [NormalizeDuplicateFields] Finishing NormalizeDuplicateFields process

The script reports to you the total number of offending structures and the templates that need to be fixed manually. It does this by reporting the IDs (primary keys) of the offending objects:

INFO  [NormalizeDuplicateFields] Checking Structure with ID 2274237 and Structure ID 2274236 and name Companies from group ID 2270225
INFO  [NormalizeDuplicateFields] Field name will be replaced by nameRev1
INFO  [NormalizeDuplicateFields] Field content will be replaced by contentRev1
INFO  [NormalizeDuplicateFields] This structure contains duplicate field names
INFO  [NormalizeDuplicateFields] The following associated templates have to be manually modified:
INFO  [NormalizeDuplicateFields] - Template ID 2274340 from Group ID 2270225
INFO  [NormalizeDuplicateFields] - Template ID 2274400 from Group ID 2270225

Since you’re not a computer, it’s highly likely that you won’t recognize these groups or templates by their IDs, so you’ll have to go back to the script console and call the relevant Liferay APIs to figure out what they are. The APIs are called via utility classes in the com.liferay.portal.service package:

  • CompanyLocalServiceUtil
  • GroupLocalServiceUtil

For example, Group IDs are children of Company IDs. Company IDs are back-end labels for portal instances. Group IDs are back-end labels for sites, among other things. If you have a lot of sites with structures and templates, you’ll need to query Liferay in the Script console to find the ones the script identified that needed to be fixed. To find the name of a group reported in the script by its ID, you can query for it in the script console:


Running something like this can help you identify the group (or site) in which the offending template resides. To find the template name, you can run something similar:


Use these techniques to identify the templates and then open them in the UI to see if they used fields the script renamed. For example, the script output above says that two fields, name and content, were renamed to nameRev1 and contentRev1. You need to open the affected templates and check to see if they used the old field names. If they did, you must modify them to use the new names before upgrading. Go through each template the script identified and modify them to use the new field names.

If you do not complete this step and perform the upgrade anyway, you’ll get the following stack trace the first time your upgraded system starts:

WARN [VerifyDynamicDataMapping:XXX] Structure with class name ID XXXXX and structure
key = XXXXX contains more than one element that is identified by the same name either within itself or within
any of its parent structures. The duplicate element names are: XXX, XXX
ERROR [DBUpgrader:XXX] Unable to execute verify process:
com.liferay.portal.verify.VerifyException: com.liferay.portal.verify.VerifyException: Duplicate element name found in structures
com.liferay.portal.verify.VerifyException: com.liferay.portal.verify.VerifyException: com.liferay.portal.verify.VerifyException:
Duplicate element name found in structures
Stopping the server due to unexpected startup errors

At this point, you’ll have to roll back to your most recent backup and perform the steps above.

Next, you might need to explicitly set your Image Gallery storage option.

Liferay 6.1 introduced a major change to how Liferay handles files. Liferay 6.0 and previous versions had a separate Document Library and Image Gallery. In Liferay 6.1 and 6.2, these are combined into the Documents and Media repository. If you were using Liferay’s Image Gallery to store images, these can be migrated over during an upgrade, but you’ll have to take some extra steps first.

In Liferay 6.0, you had three ways you could store images in the Image Gallery. You could use the DatabaseHook and store them as BLOBs in the database; you could use the DLHook to store them in the Document Library, or you could use the FileSystemHook to store them in a folder on your server’s file system. Before you upgrade, you’ll need to set whichever property you were using in your 6.0 portal-ext.properties file, because by default, none of them are enabled in 6.1. Setting one of the properties triggers the migration during the upgrade process. Below are the three properties; you’ll need to set only one of them (the one you were using).


By default, Liferay 6.0 used the FileSystemHook. If you never customized this property for your installation, you’d use the FileSystemHook property above. If you customized the property, you should know which one you used, and it is likely already in your portal-ext.properties file.

If you’re using the FileSystemHook, you should also specify the image root directory in your portal-ext.properties file. This enables the FileSystemHook to allow data migration from other hooks. Here is the default property setting:


The third thing you need to do to prepare for your upgrade is to review the new property defaults.

Review the Liferay 6.2 Properties Defaults

The next thing you’ll need to look at are the defaults that have changed between your old Liferay instance’s version and Liferay 6.2. These are preserved in a portal-legacy-[version].properties file in Liferay’s /WEB-INF/classes folder and in the portal-impl/src folder of Liferay’s source code. For example, here are some 6.1 legacy properties:


The passwords.encryption.algorithm.legacy and mobile.device.styling.wap.enabled properties do not exist in 6.1. In 6.2, the default values of some properties have changed and some new properties have been added:


Please refer to the 6.1 and 6.2 versions of Liferay’s portal.properties file for explanations of each of these properties. This file can be found in the your Liferay instance’s /WEB-INF/lib/portal-impl.jar file. Online versions can also be found at http://docs.liferay.com/portal/6.1/propertiesdoc/portal.properties.html and http://docs.liferay.com/portal/6.2/propertiesdoc/portal.properties.html. Please also note the following changes in behavior:

  1. By default, Liferay 6.1 used the DES encryption algorithm with a 56 bit key size for the company level encryption algorithm.


    By default, Liferay 6.2 uses the much stronger AES encryption algorithm with a 128 bit key size for the company level encryption algorithm. AES-128 is believed to be secure, is fast, and is a standard for symmetric key encryption.


    However, the upgrade for the company.encryption.algorithm property is only performed if the value for this properties was not customized, i.e., if it was still set to DES. The upgrade doesn’t make any changes if a different algorithm was explicitly selected. (Note that this does not affect password encryption which a different property handles: passwords.encryption.algorithm.)

  2. By default, Liferay 6.1 used the SHA algorithm for password encryption.


    By default, Liferay 6.2 uses a stronger algorithm, PBKDF2WithHmacSHA1/160/128000, for password encryption. PBKDF2 (Password-Based Key Derivation Function 2) is a key derivation function that’s part of RSA’s PKCS (Public-Key Cryptography Standards) series: PKCS #5, version 2.0. It’s also described in the IETF’s RFC 2898. The PBKDF2WithHmacSHA1/160/128000 algorithm uses a keyed-hash message authentication code using SHA-1 and generates 160-bit hashes using 128,000 rounds. One round is a single iteration of the key derivation function.


    Performance is affected by password encryption during sign-in and password changes. In 2012, OWASP, the Open Web Application Security Project, recommended to use 64,000 rounds and to double the number of rounds each year. If using PBKDF2 with 128,000 rounds is too expensive for the hardware on which you’re running Liferay, you can downgrade your security algorithm to improve performance by choosing a smaller number. For example, you set the following:


    If you’d like your upgrade to migrate your password encryption algorithm, you need to specify the legacy password encryption algorithm from which you’re migrating. For example, if you were using the 6.1 default before your upgrade, you’d set the following property:


    Set this property before performing an upgrade so that both existing users’ and new users’ passwords are re-encrypted with the new algorithm.

  3. After upgrading from Liferay 6.1 to Liferay 6.2, users must sign back in to the portal even if they were using the Remember Me feature of the Sign In portlet. After the upgrade, the Remember Me feature works correctly: users can log in to the portal, close their browser, open a new browser window, navigate to the portal, and still be logged in.

If you don’t like the 6.2 default properties, you can change them back in one shot by adding a system property to your JVM’s startup. This differs by application servers. In Tomcat, you’d modify setenv.sh/setenv.bat and append the option -Dexternal-properties=portal-legacy-[version].properties to the environment variable JAVA_OPTS. The scripts setenv.sh or setenv.bat are not delivered with default Tomcat, but do exist in the bundles. If they’re there, Tomcat uses them in the startup process, so it’s a nice way to separate your own settings from Tomcat’s default shell scripts. Alternatively, of course, you can override some or all of them in your portal-ext.properties along with your other overrides.

If you’re not using Tomcat, check your application server’s documentation to see how to modify runtime properties. Your final task is to catalog all the plugins you have installed, so you can install the new versions in your upgraded system.

Catalog All Installed Plugins

Finally, you need to take note of any plugins you have installed. Liferay’s plugins are usually version-specific, so you’ll need to obtain new versions of them for the new release of Liferay. If you have custom plugins created by your development team, they’ll need to build, test, and optionally modify them to work with the new release of Liferay. Don’t attempt an upgrade without collecting all the plugins you’ll need first.

For Liferay 6.2, the Web Content List portlet is deprecated. During the deprecation period, the code will still be part of the product, but will be disabled by default. To enable Web Content List, you’ll need to modify the liferay-portlet.xml file by setting the <include>false</include> tag to true. However, all the functionality of this portlet is provided by the Asset Publisher portlet. The Web Content List portlet is expected to be removed in the next release.

Once you’ve upgraded your permissions algorithm, reviewed your properties, and collected all the plugins you’ll need, you’re ready to follow the upgrade procedure. Remember to back up your system before you begin.

Upgrade Choices: Upgrade a Bundle or Upgrade Manually

There are two different procedures to upgrade Liferay. The first one, upgrading a Liferay bundle, is the most common. The second procedure is for manually upgrading a Liferay installation on an application server. We’ll discuss both.

In both cases, Liferay auto-detects whether the database requires an upgrade the first time the new version is started. When Liferay does this, it upgrades the database to the format required by the new version. To perform this task, Liferay must be accessing the database with a database user account that can create, drop and modify tables. Make sure you have granted these permissions to the database user account before you attempt to upgrade Liferay. And, of course, we’ll run the risk of overly repeating ourselves: back up your database.

Let’s look at upgrading a bundle, which is the easiest upgrade path.

Upgrading a Bundle

If you’re running a Liferay bundle, the best way to do the upgrade is to follow the steps below. The new Liferay is installed in a newer version of your bundle runtime. For example, the Liferay bundle for 6.1 uses a different version of Tomcat than the Liferay bundle for 6.2. We generally recommend you use the latest version of your runtime bundle, as it will be supported the longest.

  1. Obtain the new bundle. Unzip the bundle to an appropriate location on your system.

  2. Copy your portal-ext.properties file and your data folder to the new bundle.

  3. Review your portal-ext.properties file as described above. Make sure you’re using permissions algorithm 6. If you were using the Image Gallery, make the necessary modifications so your files are migrated to Documents and Media. Review the new defaults and decide whether you want to use them. Review any other modifications you’ve made.

  4. Start your application server. Watch the console as Liferay starts: it upgrades the database automatically.

  5. When the upgrade completes, install any plugins you were using in your old version of Liferay. Make sure you use the versions of those plugins that are designed for Liferay 6.2. If you have your own plugins, your development team will need to migrate the code in these ahead of time and provide .war files for you.

  6. Browse around in your new installation and verify everything is working. Have your QA team test everything. If all looks good, you can delete the old application server with the old release of Liferay in it from the bundle directory. You have a backup of it anyway, right?

As you can see, upgrading a bundle is generally pretty simple. But not everybody can use bundles: sometimes, specific application servers or application server versions are mandated by the environment you’re in or by management. For this reason, Liferay also ships as an installable .war file that can be used on any supported application server.

Upgrading Manually

Running a manual upgrade is almost as easy as upgrading a bundle:

  1. Verify that your application server is supported by Liferay. You can do this by viewing the appropriate document on the Help Center (EE), in the Deployment documentation (if there are installation instructions for your app server, then it’s supported), or on liferay.com (CE). If your application server isn’t supported by Liferay 6.2, do not continue! You’ll need to upgrade or switch to a supported application server first.

  2. Obtain the Liferay Portal .war file and the dependency .jars archive.

  3. Copy your customized portal-ext.properties file to a safe place and review it as described above, making all the appropriate changes.

  4. Undeploy the old version of Liferay and shut down your application server.

  5. Copy the new versions of Liferay’s dependency .jars to a location on your server’s class path, overwriting the ones you already have for the old version of Liferay. This location is documented in the Deployment documentation, in the section that corresponds to your app server.

  6. Deploy the new Liferay .war file to your application server. Follow the deployment instructions in the appropriate section of the Deployment documentation.

  7. Start (or, if your app server has a console from which you’ve installed the .war, restart) your application server. Watch the console as Liferay starts: it should upgrade the database automatically. Verify your portal is operating normally, and then install any plugins you were using in your old version of Liferay. Make sure you use the versions of those plugins designed for Liferay 6.2. If you have your own plugins, your development team will need to migrate the code in these ahead of time and provide .war files to you.

  8. Browse around in your new installation and verify everything is working. Have your QA team test everything. If all looks good, you’re finished.

That’s all there is to it. Most everything is handled by Liferay’s upgrade procedure. Note as stated above, if you have to upgrade over several Liferay versions, you will need to repeat these steps for each major release.

Post-Upgrade Tasks

After upgrading to Liferay 6.2, you should reindex your portal’s search indexes. Liferay 6.2 indexes new information in many places, including Documents and Media, Web Content, and Bookmarks. To reindex all search indexes, navigate to the Control PanelServer Administration and click on Reindex all search indexes. This invokes each of your portal’s indexer classes, ensuring that your search indexes contain the updated data that 6.2 indexes.

If guest users can’t see images after upgrading your portal to Liferay 6.2 or higher from Liferay 6.1 and below, please, check that the Guest role has view permissions for the root folder in your document libraries. This permission was not needed in previous Liferay versions. This issue affects all images if the property permissions.view.dynamic.inheritance is set to true (default value).

Do you have some troublesome required portlets running in your portal? Wouldn’t it be great if you could isolate them so they wouldn’t affect the overall health of your portal? We’ll show you how to use Liferay’s Sandboxing feature to pen up those pesky portlets, next.

« Patching LiferaySandboxing Portlets to Ensure Portal Resiliency »
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