Leveraging the Script Engine in Workflow

Liferay’s Kaleo workflow engine provides a robust system for reviewing and approving content in an enterprise environment. Even if you don’t leverage custom scripts, it’s a powerful and robust workflow solution. Adding custom scripts takes it to the next level.

Examine the default Single Approver workflow definition included with Kaleo for an overview of how the feature works. The final step in the workflow runs a script that makes content available for use. As you can see in the snippet below, it uses JavaScript to access the Java class associated with the workflow to set the status of the content to approved.


At virtually any point in a workflow, you can use Liferay’s scripting engine to access workflow APIs or other APIs outside of workflow. There are a lot of different ways you could use this. Here are a few practical ones:

  • Getting a list of users with a specific workflow-related role
  • Sending an email to the designated content approver with a list of people to contact if he is unable to review the content
  • Creating an alert to be displayed in the Alerts portlet for any user assigned to approve content

Of course, before you try any of this, you need to know the appropriate syntax for inserting a script into a workflow. In an XML workflow definition, a script can be used in any XML type that can contain an actions tag: those types are <state>, <task>, <fork> and <join>. Inside of one of those types, format your script like this:

            <![CDATA[*the contents of your script*]]>
        <script-language>*your scripting language of choice*</script-language>

Here’s an example of a workflow script created in Groovy. This one is designed to be used with a Condition statement in Kaleo. It accesses Liferay’s asset framework to determine the category of an asset in the workflow. The script uses the category to automatically determine the correct approval process. If the category legal has been applied to the asset, the asset is sent to the Legal Review task upon submission. Otherwise, the asset is sent to the Default Review task.

            import com.liferay.portal.kernel.util.GetterUtil;
            import com.liferay.portal.kernel.workflow.WorkflowConstants;
            import com.liferay.portal.kernel.workflow.WorkflowHandler;
            import com.liferay.portal.kernel.workflow.WorkflowHandlerRegistryUtil;
            import com.liferay.portlet.asset.model.AssetCategory;
            import com.liferay.portlet.asset.model.AssetEntry;
            import com.liferay.portlet.asset.model.AssetRenderer;
            import com.liferay.portlet.asset.model.AssetRendererFactory;
            import com.liferay.portlet.asset.service.AssetEntryLocalServiceUtil;

            import java.util.List;

            String className = (String)workflowContext.get(

            WorkflowHandler workflowHandler =

            AssetRendererFactory assetRendererFactory =

            long classPK =

            AssetRenderer assetRenderer =

            AssetEntry assetEntry = assetRendererFactory.getAssetEntry(
                assetRendererFactory.getClassName(), assetRenderer.getClassPK());

            List<AssetCategory> assetCategories = assetEntry.getCategories();

            returnValue = "Default Review";

            for (AssetCategory assetCategory : assetCategories) {
                String categoryName = assetCategory.getName();

                if (categoryName.equals("legal")) {
                    returnValue = "Legal Review";


Within a workflow, the next task or state is chosen based on the return value. For a complete example a workflow script that uses the above Groovy script, please see the legal-workflow-script.xml file in the User Guide’s code folder on Github: https://github.com/liferay/liferay-docs/blob/6.2.x/userGuide/code/legal-workflow-script.xml.

The combination of Liferay’s scripting and workflow engines is incredibly powerful. However, since it provides users with the ability to execute code, it can be dangerous. When configuring your permissions, be aware of the potential consequences of poorly, or maliciously, written scripts inside of a workflow definition. For more information on creating workflow definitions with Kaleo workflow, see chapter 11 of this guide.

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