Installing Elasticsearch

Liferay DXP uses Elasticsearch to index its content. By default, it’s installed as an embedded service. It works, but it’s not a supported configuration for a production server. Feel free to use it while testing or developing, but when you’re ready to put your site in production, you must run Elasticsearch as a standalone process. This is better anyway, because it frees you to design your infrastructure the way you want it. If you’ve got hardware or a VM to spare, you can separate your search infrastructure from Liferay DXP and reap some performance gains by putting search on a separate box. If you’re more budget-conscious, you can still increase performance by running Elasticsearch in a separate, individually tunable JVM on the same box.

Before installing Elasticsearch, refer to Preparing to Install Elasticsearch for guidance on configuring the servers to support an Elasticsearch deployment properly.

Installing Elasticsearch takes six steps:

  1. Download a supported version of Elasticsearch. See Elastic’s website.

  2. Install Elasticsearch by extracting its archive to the system where you want it to run.

  3. Install some required Elasticsearch plugins.

  4. Name your Elasticsearch cluster.

  5. Configure Liferay DXP to connect to your Elasticsearch cluster.

  6. Restart Liferay DXP and reindex your search and spell check indexes.

When you perform these steps, you’ll have a basic, production-ready instance of Liferay DXP and Elasticsearch up and running. But that’s just the beginning of your server/connector configuration:

For complete information on compatibility, check the Liferay DXP compatibility matrix and the Liferay Enterprise Search compatibility matrix if you have a subscription.

Step One: Download a Supported Version of Elasticsearch

If Liferay DXP isn’t running, start it.

Visit port 9200 on localhost to access the embedded Elasticsearch:

http://localhost:9200

A JSON document is returned that looks similar to this:

{
  "name" : "01BT8H4",
  "cluster_name" : "LiferayElasticsearchCluster",
  "cluster_uuid" : "ziPGEBeSToGHc7lVqaYHnA",
  "version" : {
    "number" : "6.5.0",
    "build_flavor" : "unknown",
    "build_type" : "unknown",
    "build_hash" : "816e6f6",
    "build_date" : "2018-11-09T18:58:36.352602Z",
    "build_snapshot" : false,
    "lucene_version" : "7.5.0",
    "minimum_wire_compatibility_version" : "5.6.0",
    "minimum_index_compatibility_version" : "5.0.0"
  },
  "tagline" : "You Know, for Search"
}

The version of Elasticsearch that’s running is the value of the number field. In this example, it’s 6.5.0. You can install the embedded version, but it might not be the most up-to-date version of Elasticsearch that’s supported with Liferay DXP. Consult the Compatibility Matrix for definitive information on what’s supported.

Shut down the Liferay DXP server. In a local, single-machine testing environment, if you continue without shutting down, the Elasticsearch server you’re about to install and start throws errors in the log if its cluster name and HTTP port match the already-running embedded Elasticsearch server. An alternative to shutting down Liferay DXP is to use a different cluster name (i.e., not LiferayElasticsearchCluster) and HTTP port (i.e., not 9200) in the remote Elasticsearch server.

When you know the version of Elasticsearch you need, go to Elastic’s website and download that version.

Step Two: Install Elasticsearch

Most of this step entails deciding where you want to run Elasticsearch. Do you want to run it on the same machine as Liferay DXP, or do you want to run it on its own hardware? The answer to this question comes down to a combination of the resources you have available and the size of your installation. Regardless of what you decide, either way you get the benefit of a separately tunable search infrastructure.

Once you have a copy of the right version of Elasticsearch, extract it to a folder on the machine where you want it running. That’s it!

Step Three: Install Elasticsearch Plugins

Install the following required Elasticsearch plugins:

  • analysis-icu
  • analysis-kuromoji
  • analysis-smartcn
  • analysis-stempel

To install these plugins, navigate to Elasticsearch Home and enter

./bin/elasticsearch-plugin install [plugin-name]

Replace [plugin-name] with the Elasticsearch plugin’s name.

Step Four: Name Your Elasticsearch Cluster

A cluster in Elasticsearch is a collection of nodes (servers) identified as a cluster by a shared cluster name. The nodes work together to share data and workload. A one node cluster is discussed here; to create a multi-node cluster, please refer to Elastic’s documentation.

Now that you’ve installed Elastic, it sits in a folder on your machine, which is referred to here as [Elasticsearch Home]. To name your cluster, you’ll define the cluster name in both Elasticsearch and in Liferay DXP. First, define it in Elasticsearch. Edit the following file:

[Elasticsearch Home]/config/elasticsearch.yml

Uncomment the line that begins with cluster.name. Set the cluster name to whatever you want to name your cluster:

cluster.name: LiferayElasticsearchCluster

Of course, this isn’t a very imaginative name; you may choose to name your cluster finders_keepers or something else you can remember more easily. Save the file.

Now you can start Elasticsearch. Run the executable for your operating system from the [Elasticsearch Home]/bin folder:

./elasticsearch

Elasticsearch starts, and one of its status messages includes a transport address:

[2019-04-01T16:55:50,127][INFO ][o.e.t.TransportService   ] [HfkqdKv] publish_address {127.0.0.1:9300}, bound_addresses {[::1]:9300}, {127.0.0.1:9300}

Take note of this address; you’ll need to give it to your Liferay DXP server so it can find Elasticsearch on the network.

Step Five: Configure Liferay DXP to Connect to your Elasticsearch Cluster

Now that you’re ready to configure Liferay DXP, start it if you haven’t already, log in, and then click on Control PanelConfigurationSystem SettingsSearch. Enter the term elasticsearch in the search bar and click the Elasticsearch 6 entry from the list of settings. Now you can configure it. Here are the configuration options to change:

Cluster Name: Enter the name of the cluster as you defined it in Elasticsearch.

Operation Mode: Defaults to EMBEDDED. Change it to REMOTE to connect to a standalone Elasticsearch.

Transport Addresses: Enter a delimited list of transport addresses for Elasticsearch nodes. Here, you’ll enter the transport address from the Elasticsearch server you started. The default value is localhost:9300, which will work.

When finished, click Save. You’re almost done.

Step Six: Restart Liferay DXP and Reindex

If you’re doing a local test installation, you probably only changed the Operation Mode in the connector configuration, so there’s no need to restart; skip to re-indexing. If you’ve made more configuration changes in the connector’s configuration, stop and restart Liferay DXP. When it’s back up, log in as an administrative user and click on Control PanelConfigurationSearch and click the Execute button for Reindex all search indexes and then Reindex all spell check indexes. When you do that, you’ll see some messages scroll up in the Elasticsearch log.

When restarting Liferay DXP, update_mappings messages will appear in the Elasticsearch logs:

[2019-04-01T17:08:57,462][INFO ][o.e.c.m.MetaDataMappingService] [HfkqdKv] [liferay-0/m27eNsekTAyP27zDOjGojw] update_mapping [LiferayDocumentType]
[2019-04-01T17:08:57,474][INFO ][o.e.c.m.MetaDataMappingService] [HfkqdKv] [liferay-0/m27eNsekTAyP27zDOjGojw] update_mapping [LiferayDocumentType]
[2019-04-01T17:08:58,393][INFO ][o.e.c.m.MetaDataMappingService] [HfkqdKv] [liferay-0/m27eNsekTAyP27zDOjGojw] update_mapping [LiferayDocumentType]
[2019-04-01T17:08:58,597][INFO ][o.e.c.m.MetaDataMappingService] [HfkqdKv] [liferay-0/m27eNsekTAyP27zDOjGojw] update_mapping [LiferayDocumentType]
[2019-04-01T17:09:07,040][INFO ][o.e.c.m.MetaDataMappingService] [HfkqdKv] [liferay-20101/OJidpYkgR5OcCD5dgWB8Aw] update_mapping [LiferayDocumentType]

Once you reindex, more log messages appear in Elasticsearch:

[2019-04-01T17:11:17,338][INFO ][o.e.c.m.MetaDataDeleteIndexService] [HfkqdKv] [liferay-20101/OJidpYkgR5OcCD5dgWB8Aw] deleting index
[2019-04-01T17:11:17,389][INFO ][o.e.c.m.MetaDataCreateIndexService] [HfkqdKv] [liferay-20101] creating index, cause [api], templates [], shards [1]/[0], mappings [LiferayDocumentType]
[2019-04-01T17:11:17,471][INFO ][o.e.c.r.a.AllocationService] [HfkqdKv] Cluster health status changed from [YELLOW] to [GREEN] (reason: [shards started [[liferay-20101][0]] ...]).
[2019-04-01T17:11:17,520][INFO ][o.e.c.m.MetaDataMappingService] [HfkqdKv] [liferay-20101/Meacn_uxR06g0tCJonS4eA] update_mapping [LiferayDocumentType]
[2019-04-01T17:11:19,047][INFO ][o.e.c.m.MetaDataMappingService] [HfkqdKv] [liferay-20101/Meacn_uxR06g0tCJonS4eA] update_mapping [LiferayDocumentType]
[2019-04-01T17:11:19,133][INFO ][o.e.c.m.MetaDataMappingService] [HfkqdKv] [liferay-20101/Meacn_uxR06g0tCJonS4eA] update_mapping [LiferayDocumentType]
[2019-04-01T17:11:19,204][INFO ][o.e.c.m.MetaDataMappingService] [HfkqdKv] [liferay-20101/Meacn_uxR06g0tCJonS4eA] update_mapping [LiferayDocumentType]
[2019-04-01T17:11:19,249][INFO ][o.e.c.m.MetaDataMappingService] [HfkqdKv] [liferay-20101/Meacn_uxR06g0tCJonS4eA] update_mapping [LiferayDocumentType]
[2019-04-01T17:11:21,215][INFO ][o.e.c.m.MetaDataMappingService] [HfkqdKv] [liferay-20101/Meacn_uxR06g0tCJonS4eA] update_mapping [LiferayDocumentType]
[2019-04-01T17:11:21,262][INFO ][o.e.c.m.MetaDataMappingService] [HfkqdKv] [liferay-20101/Meacn_uxR06g0tCJonS4eA] update_mapping [LiferayDocumentType]
[2019-04-01T17:11:21,268][INFO ][o.e.c.m.MetaDataMappingService] [HfkqdKv] [liferay-20101/Meacn_uxR06g0tCJonS4eA] update_mapping [LiferayDocumentType]
[2019-04-01T17:11:21,275][INFO ][o.e.c.m.MetaDataMappingService] [HfkqdKv] [liferay-20101/Meacn_uxR06g0tCJonS4eA] update_mapping [LiferayDocumentType]
[2019-04-01T17:11:21,282][INFO ][o.e.c.m.MetaDataMappingService] [HfkqdKv] [liferay-20101/Meacn_uxR06g0tCJonS4eA] update_mapping [LiferayDocumentType]
[2019-04-01T17:11:21,373][INFO ][o.e.c.m.MetaDataMappingService] [HfkqdKv] [liferay-20101/Meacn_uxR06g0tCJonS4eA] update_mapping [LiferayDocumentType]

Reindexing the spell check dictionaries produces log messages like these:

2019-04-29 14:02:22.034 INFO  [liferay/search_writer/SYSTEM_ENGINE-11][BaseSpellCheckIndexWriter:278] Start indexing dictionary for com/liferay/portal/search/dependencies/spellchecker/en_US.txt
2019-04-29 14:02:34.166 INFO  [liferay/search_writer/SYSTEM_ENGINE-11][BaseSpellCheckIndexWriter:299] Finished indexing dictionary for com/liferay/portal/search/dependencies/spellchecker/en_US.txt
2019-04-29 14:02:34.167 INFO  [liferay/search_writer/SYSTEM_ENGINE-11][BaseSpellCheckIndexWriter:278] Start indexing dictionary for com/liferay/portal/search/dependencies/spellchecker/es_ES.txt
2019-04-29 14:02:39.379 INFO  [liferay/search_writer/SYSTEM_ENGINE-11][BaseSpellCheckIndexWriter:299] Finished indexing dictionary for com/liferay/portal/search/dependencies/spellchecker/es_ES.txt

For additional confirmation that Liferay DXP recognizes the remote search engine, navigate to the Search Control Panel application and note the subtle change there: the vendor name is now simply Elasticsearch, whereas prior to the installation of the remote Elasticsearch server, it said Elasticsearch (Embedded).

Figure 1: To see information about the currently connected search engine, go to Control Panel → Configuration → Search.

Figure 1: To see information about the currently connected search engine, go to _Control Panel → Configuration → Search_.

For additional details refer to the Elasticsearch installation guide.

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