Segments are groups of users that are defined by a specific criteria. You can use the metadata from the user or organization profile, context information derived from the user’s behavior, or some combination of the two to define that criteria. Alternatively, segments can be a static set of manually selected members.
In Liferay DXP 7.2, the creation of user segments and experience personalization are now part of the product’s core functionality. Up to Liferay DXP 7.1, this functionality was provided through the Audience Targeting application. In addition to the administration features of Segmentation and Personalization, developers can integrate and extend it.
The API to manage segments is provided by the
SegmentsEntryService provides the methods to perform permission aware
operations on segments. You can use the provided tools to assign members to
segments and to extend segment criteria.
segmentsEntry criteria field determines the conditions that a user must
meet to be assigned to the segment. A condition represents a combination of
properties, operations, target values, and conjunctions. For example, a
condition identifying Liferay Engineers for a Segment might look like this:
organization name EQUALS Liferay AND Job Title EQUALS Engineer
In the Segments UI, the segments criteria is built using the
Segments Editor. The
available properties are grouped by topic (e.g. User, Organization, Session).
Technically, they are called a
SegmentsCriteriaContributor, because they
contribute conditions to the segments criteria.
You can see a number of common Segment management operations with example code in Segment Management.
The default segment capabilities are robust enough to cover most use cases, and many types of third party integration can be performed without developing a code extension. Some cases, like retrieving an external segment or list can be be handled by using the REST API.
On the other hand, if you want to segment users based on a field provided from an external source (for example, the number of followers a user has on Instagram), you can contribute an indexable custom field to the User entity and query the value using the Expando API. Your new field is automatically available for its use as a profile-based criteria.
You must only develop a code extension if you must:
Add a custom session property. This is done through the
Extend the criteria query with new queries, based either on existing model entities or in custom model entities. This is done through the
User and Organization properties are model-based properties. That means that
the available criteria for users and organizations are based on the attributes
for users and organizations defined by the entities
model. Criteria for
model-based entities can be extended by creating a Custom Field for the
corresponding model. Session properties are context-based properties and can’t
be extended through custom fields. To allow for user segmentation based on new
context-based properties, like custom HTTP headers or attributes, you must
develop an extension and deploy it in your Liferay DXP instance.
The default fields available for context-based segmentation can be found in the
Context interface. Liferay generates a context instance with real-time
information for every request. These are mostly obtained from the
RequestContextContributor interface provides an
extension point for adding a new context-based property to the Session panel in
the Segments criteria editor and populating the segmentation context with the
right value for that field.
The following service properties define a
request.context.contributor.key: the unique key of the contributed field.
request.context.contributor.type: the contributor field type (boolean, date,
double, integer, or string[default]).
contribute method of the
RequestContextContributor adds the custom field
key-value pair to the context.
To create a
RequestContextContributor through the step by step process, see
Creating a Request Context Contributor.
SegmentsCriteriaContributor interface provides a mechanism
to extend the segment criteria query. Each
contributes a sub-query (or criterion) and the conjunction (AND, OR) to build
the complete criteria query that defines the segment. They also provide a list
of Field elements to be shown in the Segment Editor UI, as depicted in the
The following service properties describe a
segments.criteria.contributor.key: the unique key that identifies the
segments.criteria.contributor.model.class.name: the entity type the
segments.criteria.contributor.priority: the order in which the fields and
queries are contributed.
UserOrganizationSegmentsCriteriaContributor is a good
example of how a
SegmentsCriteriaContributor works. It contributes new
organization-related fields (Organization Properties) to the segments
criteria editor, executes a query on the Organization based model, and finally
contributes a subquery to the global user query (AND/OR the user belongs to the
organizations found in the Organization model query). In summary, you can
filter users based on aspects of a different but related entity, such as the
To create a
SegmentsCriteriaContributor through the step by step process, see
Creating Segment Criteria Contributors.