Liferay DXP started off as a portal server, designed to serve Java-based web applications called portlets (see JSR 168, JSR-286, and JSR-362). Portlets process requests and generate responses like any other web application. One key difference, however, between portlets and other web apps is that portlets run in a portion of the web page. When you’re writing a portlet application, you need only worry about that application: the rest of the page—the navigation, the top banner, and any other global components of the interface—is handled by other components. Portlets run only in a portal server. They use the portal’s existing support for user management, authentication, permissions, page management, and more. This frees you to focus on developing the portlet’s core functionality. In many ways, writing your application as a portlet is easier than writing a standalone application.
Many portlets can be placed on a single page by users (if they have permission) or portal administrators. For example, a page in a community site could have a calendar portlet for community events, an announcements portlet for important announcements, and a bookmarks portlet for links of interest to the community. You can drag and drop to reposition and resize portlets on a page without altering any portlet code. Alternatively, a single portlet can take up an entire page if it’s the only app you need on that page. For example, message boards or Wikis with complex user interfaces are best suited on their own pages. In short, portlets alleviate many of the traditional pain points associated with developing Java-based web apps.
Portlets handle requests in multiple phases. This makes portlets much more flexible than servlets. Each portlet phase executes different operations:
- Render: Generates the portlet’s content based on its current state. When this phase runs on one portlet, it also runs on all other portlets on the page. The Render phase runs when any portlets on the page complete the Action or Event phases.
- Action: In response to a user action, the Action phase performs operations that change the portlet’s state. The Action phase can also trigger events that are processed by the Event phase. Following the Action phase and optional Event phase, the Render phase then regenerates the portlet’s contents.
- Event: Processes events triggered in the Action phase. Events are used for inter-portlet communication (IPC). Once the portlet processes all events, the portal calls the Render phase on all portlets on the page.
- Resource-serving: Serves a resource independently from the rest of the lifecycle. This lets a portlet serve dynamic content without running the Render phase on all portlets on a page. The Resource-serving phase handles AJAX requests.
- Header: Lets you specify resource dependencies, such as CSS, prior to the Render phase.
Compared to servlets, portlets also have some other key differences. Since
portlets only render a portion of a page, tags like
<body> aren’t allowed. And because you don’t know the portlet’s page ahead of
time, you can’t create portlet URLs directly. Instead, the portlet API gives you
methods to create portlet URLs programmatically. Also, because portlets don’t
have direct access to the
javax.servlet.ServletRequest, they can’t read query
parameters directly from a URL. Portlets instead access a
javax.portlet.PortletRequest object. The portlet specification provides a
mechanism for a portlet to read only its own URL parameters or those declared as
public render parameters. Liferay DXP does, however, provide utility methods that
can access the
ServletRequest and query parameters. Portlets also have a
portlet filter available for each phase in the portlet lifecycle. Portlet
filters are similar to servlet filters in that they allow request and response
modification on the fly.
Portlets also differ from servlets by having distinct modes and window states. Modes distinguish the portlet’s current function:
- View mode: The portlet’s standard mode. Use this mode to access the portlet’s main functionality.
- Edit mode: The portlet’s configuration mode. Use this mode to configure a custom view or behavior. For example, the Edit mode of a weather portlet might let you choose a location to retrieve weather data from.
- Help mode: A mode that displays the portlet’s help information.
Most modern applications use View Mode only.
Portlet window states control the amount of space a portlet takes on a page. Window states mimic window behavior in a traditional desktop environment:
- Normal: The portlet can be on a page that contains other portlets. This is the default window state.
- Maximized: The portlet takes up an entire page.
- Minimized: Only the portlet’s title bar shows.