Liferay’s data schema version convention communicates a schema’s compatibility with older versions of the software. It tells you whether a schema’s changes maintain or break compatibility with existing software. For example, if a new data schema removes a field your software expects, the schema breaks compatibility. But if a new schema’s changes are non-breaking (e.g., adds a new field), the schema is compatible and can be used with existing software.
Since Liferay DXP 7.1, Liferay uses a meaningful schema version convention (similar to Semantic Versioning) to define new upgrade steps and support rollback of schema micro versions. The schema version defines the status of the database schema and its data belonging to that module or Core in a certain moment. The concept of schema versioning is different from bundle versioning. The biggest concern in versioning a data schema is backward-compatibility between the new schema and the code that operates on the data.
Here’s Liferay’s schema version convention:
Each part means something:
MAJOR: Contains breaking schema/data changes that are incompatible with the previous version of the code.
MINOR: Contains schema/data changes compatible with the previous version of the code. The changes are required for the new version of the code to work (the application will fail without applying the schema/data changes)
MICRO: Contains schema/data changes that are compatible with the previous version of the code. The changes are optional.
If you’re not sure what kind of schema version change represents your upgrade step, ask yourself these questions:
Will the previous code version (previous FP, SP, or GA) work with these schema/data changes?
- If not, it is a major change.
- If yes, continue.
Are the schema/data changes required for the application to work? (Obviously, all changes are intended to improve the application but in some cases the application is fully functional without them)
- If yes, it is a minor change.
- If not, it is a micro change.
Next are some concrete examples of micro, minor, and major changes.
Here are common micro changes:
- Modifying DB indexes.
- Modifying data values to adapt to current logic. These include backwards compatible data changes only. These changes commonly occur when data updates are missed for new functionalities.
- Converting a field from a String to a CLOB, as long as the field has few
records and isn’t used in
GROUP BYSQL clauses.
Here are common minor changes:
- Adding a new DB field.
- Adding a new DB table.
Important: The changes above are major if they require modifying current existing data or extract information to populate the new field or table. In such cases, the data can become incorrect if you rolled back to the previous code version and then, after some time, installed the new code again.
Here are common major changes:
- Making data modifications that are not backward compatible.
- Removing a DB field
- Removing a DB table.
- Altering a column name.
- Decreasing the size of a
- Converting a field from a String to a CLOB, where the field is has many
records or is used in
GROUP BYSQL clauses.
- Adding a new DB field or table that requires modifying current existing data or extracts information to populate the new field or table.
Now you can ascribe meaningful versions to your module’s data schemas.