Making Authenticated Requests

To make an authenticated request, you must authenticate as a specific User.

There are three authentication mechanisms available when invoking web APIs:

Basic Authentication: Sends the user credentials as an encoded user name and password pair. This is the simplest authentication protocol (available since HTTP/1.0).

OAuth 2.0: In Liferay DXP 7.2, you can use OAuth 2.0 for authentication. See the OAuth 2.0 documentation for more information.

Cookie/Session authentication: From inside the portal you can make direct requests to the APIs by sending the session token.

First, you’ll learn how send requests with basic authentication.

Basic Authentication

Basic authentication requires that you send an HTTP Authorization header containing the encoded user name and password. You must first get that encoded value. To do so, you can use openssl or a Base64 encoder. Either way, you must encode the user:password string. Here’s an example of the openssl command for encoding the user:password string for a user test@example.com with the password Liferay:

openssl base64 <<< test@example.com:Liferay

This returns the encoded value:

dGVzdEBleGFtcGxlLmNvbTpMaWZlcmF5Cg==

If you don’t have openssl installed, try the base64 command:

base64 <<< test@example.com:Liferay

Use the encoded value for the HTTP Authorization header when sending the request:

curl -H "Authorization: Basic dGVzdEBleGFtcGxlLmNvbTpMaWZlcmF5Cg==" http://localhost:8080/o/headless-delivery/v1.0/sites/{siteId}/blog-postings/

The response contains data instead of the 403 error that an unauthenticated request receives. For more information on the response’s structure, see Working with Collections of Data.

{
  "items": [
    {
      "alternativeHeadline": "The power of OpenAPI & Liferay",
      "articleBody": "<p>We are happy to announce...</p>",
      "creator": {
        "familyName": "Test",
        "givenName": "Test",
        "id": 20130,
        "name": "Test Test",
        "profileURL": "/web/test"
      },
      "dateCreated": "2019-04-22T07:04:47Z",
      "dateModified": "2019-04-22T07:04:51Z",
      "datePublished": "2019-04-22T07:02:00Z",
      "encodingFormat": "text/html",
      "friendlyUrlPath": "new-headless-apis",
      "headline": "New Headless APIs",
      "id": 59301,
      "numberOfComments": 0,
      "siteId": 20124
    },
    {
      "alternativeHeadline": "How to work with OAuth",
      "articleBody": "<p>To configure OAuth...</p>",
      "creator": {
        "familyName": "Test",
        "givenName": "Test",
        "id": 20130,
        "name": "Test Test",
        "profileURL": "/web/test"
      },
      "dateCreated": "2019-04-22T09:35:09Z",
      "dateModified": "2019-04-22T09:35:09Z",
      "datePublished": "2019-04-22T09:34:00Z",
      "encodingFormat": "text/html",
      "friendlyUrlPath": "authenticated-requests",
      "headline": "Authenticated requests",
      "id": 59309,
      "numberOfComments": 0,
      "siteId": 20124
    }
  ],
  "lastPage": 1,
  "page": 1,
  "pageSize": 20,
  "totalCount": 2
}

OAuth 2.0 Authorization

Liferay DXP 7.2 supports authorization via OAuth 2.0, which is a token-based authorization mechanism. For more details, see Liferay DXP’s OAuth 2.0 documentation. The following sections show you how to use OAuth 2.0 to authenticate web API requests.

Obtaining the OAuth 2.0 Token

Before using OAuth 2.0 to invoke a web API, you must register your application (your web API’s consumer) as an authorized OAuth client. To do this, follow the instructions in the Creating an Application section of the OAuth 2.0 documentation. When creating the application, fill in the form as follows:

Application Name: Your application’s name.

Client Profile: Headless Server.

Allowed Authorization Types: Check Client Credentials.

After clicking Save to finish creating the application, write down the Client ID and Client Secret values that appear at the top of the form.

Next, you must get an OAuth 2.0 access token. To do this, see the tutorial Authorizing Account Access with OAuth 2.

Invoking the Service with an OAuth 2.0 Token

Once you have a valid OAuth 2.0 token, include it in the request’s Authorization header, specifying that the authentication type is a bearer token. For example:

curl -H "Authorization: Bearer d5571ff781dc555415c478872f0755c773fa159" http://localhost:8080/o/headless-delivery/v1.0/sites/{siteId}/blog-postings/

The response contains the resources that the authenticated user has permission to access, just like the response from Basic authentication.

You can call the REST APIs using the existing session from outside Liferay DXP by passing the session identifier (the cookie reference) and the Liferay Auth Token (a Cross-Site Request Forgery—CSRF—token).

To do a request from outside Liferay DXP you must provide the Cookie identifier in the header. In CURL, pass the -H parameter:

 -H 'Cookie: JSESSIONID=27D7C95648D7CDBE3347601FC4543F5D'

You must also provide the CSRF token by passing it in the p_auth query parameter, or by adding the URL to the whitelist of CSRF allowed URLs or disabling CSRF checks altogether with the auth.verifier.auth.verifier.PortalSessionAuthVerifier.check.csrf.token property (application level).

Here’s a sample CURL request with the cookie and CSRF token:

curl -H 'Cookie: JSESSIONID=27D7C95648D7CDBE3347601FC4543F5D' http://localhost:8080/o/headless-delivery/v1.0/sites/{siteId}/blog-postings/?p_auth=O4dCU1Mj

To do a cookie request from inside Liferay DXP, from JavaScript code or a Java method, the session identifier is not needed and you must only provide the CRSF token or add the API to the whitelist of CSRF allowed URLs.

Making Unauthenticated Requests

Unauthenticated requests are disabled by default in Liferay DXP’s headless REST APIs. You can, however, enable them manually by defining an exception in the Service Access Policy to allow unauthenticated requests.

  1. Go to Control Panel → Configuration → Service Access Policy.

  2. Add a new Service Access Policy.

  3. Enable both Enabled and Default options.

  4. Use com.liferay.headless.delivery.internal.resource.v1_0.OpenAPIResourceImpl for the Service Class and getOpenAPI for the Method Name (or the method/class you want to expose).

  5. Test the APIs by making a request to an OpenAPI profile URL:

curl "http://localhost:8080/o/headless-delivery/v1.0/openapi.yaml"

You should get the OpenAPI profile for the API you sent the request to.

Cross-Origin Resource Sharing (CORS)

Modern web browsers block access to content from domains other than the one currently being visited. For example, browsers block fetch/ajax requests from a local JavaScript application (being executed in localhost:4000) that tries to access a Tomcat server (running in localhost:8080).

Cross Origin Resource Sharing allows the configuration of safe resource sharing between sites. A web application using APIs can only request endpoints that have the same origin/domain unless some special CORS headers are set that explicitly allow querying from different domains.

For development purposes, it’s common to enable CORS headers to allow scripts to call APIs served by a different server.

Figure 1: Configure Cross-Origin Resource Sharing in Liferay

Figure 1: Configure Cross-Origin Resource Sharing in Liferay

Follow these instructions to configure Cross-Origin Resource Sharing (CORS) in Liferay DXP.

Get Started: Invoke a Service

Working with Collections of Data

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