Defining Resources and Permissions

Your first step in implementing permissions is to define the resources and the permissions that protect them. There are two different kinds of resources: portlet resources and model resources.

Portlet resources represent portlets. The names of portlet resources are the portlet IDs from the portlets’ @Component properties or if you’re using a WAR file, portlet.xml files. Model resources refer to model objects, usually persisted as entities to a database. The names of model resources are their fully qualified class names. In the XML displayed below, permission implementations are first defined for the portlet resource and then for the model resources.

Model resources represent models, such as blog entries. Resources are named using the fully qualified class names of the entities they represent.

You define resources and their permissions using an XML file. By convention, this file is called default.xml and exists in a module’s src/main/resources/resource-actions folder.

Because of the two different types of resources, you’ll have two of these files: one in your portlet module to define the portlet resources and one in your service module to define the model resources.

Defining Portlet Resource Permissions

Define the portlet resources first; here’s an example using Liferay’s Blogs application.

  1. Start with the DTD declaration:

    <?xml version="1.0"?>
    <!DOCTYPE resource-action-mapping PUBLIC "-//Liferay//DTD Resource Action Mapping 7.1.0//EN" "http://www.liferay.com/dtd/liferay-resource-action-mapping_7_0_0.dtd">
    
  2. The root tag contains all the resources to be declared:

    <resource-action-mapping>
    
    </resource-action-mapping> 
    
  3. Inside these tags, define your resources. The Blogs application defines two portlet resources:

    <portlet-resource>
        <portlet-name>com_liferay_blogs_web_portlet_BlogsAdminPortlet</portlet-name>
        <permissions>
            <supports>
                <action-key>ACCESS_IN_CONTROL_PANEL</action-key>
                <action-key>CONFIGURATION</action-key>
                <action-key>VIEW</action-key>
            </supports>
            <site-member-defaults>
                <action-key>VIEW</action-key>
            </site-member-defaults>
            <guest-defaults>
                <action-key>VIEW</action-key>
            </guest-defaults>
            <guest-unsupported>
                <action-key>ACCESS_IN_CONTROL_PANEL</action-key>
                <action-key>CONFIGURATION</action-key>
            </guest-unsupported>
        </permissions>
    </portlet-resource>
    <portlet-resource>
        <portlet-name>com_liferay_blogs_web_portlet_BlogsPortlet</portlet-name>
        <permissions>
            <supports>
                <action-key>ADD_PORTLET_DISPLAY_TEMPLATE</action-key>
                <action-key>ADD_TO_PAGE</action-key>
                <action-key>CONFIGURATION</action-key>
                <action-key>VIEW</action-key>
            </supports>
            <site-member-defaults>
                <action-key>VIEW</action-key>
            </site-member-defaults>
            <guest-defaults>
                <action-key>VIEW</action-key>
            </guest-defaults>
            <guest-unsupported>
                <action-key>ADD_PORTLET_DISPLAY_TEMPLATE</action-key>
                <action-key>CONFIGURATION</action-key>
            </guest-unsupported>
        </permissions>
    </portlet-resource>
    

The Blogs application comprises two portlets: the Blogs portlet itself and the Blogs Admin portlet that appears in the Site menu for administrators. Define your portlets by their names, and then list the permissions for the portlet. The Blogs portlet, for example, supports four permissions: ADD_PORTLET_DISPLAY_TEMPLATE, ADD_TO_PAGE, CONFIGURATION, and VIEW. The Blogs Admin portlet has an additional permission: ACCESS_IN_CONTROL_PANEL, which defines who can see the entry in the Site menu.

Once you’ve defined permissions at the portlet level, you can set default permissions for different types of users. The DTD allows for site member and guest defaults. Since guests are users that aren’t logged in, there’s also a guest-unsupported tag for defining permissions guests can never have (in other words, the user must be logged in and identifiable).

That’s all there is to it! Your next task is to define permissions for your model resources.

Defining Model Resource Permissions

Defining permissions for models is a similar process. Create a default.xml file in your service module’s src/main/resources/resource-actions folder. In this file, you must define top-level function permissions and individual entity permissions using the same <model-resource> tag.

This can be confusing, so some explanation is in order. Model permissions for what Liferay calls the root model are defined separately from permissions on stored entities, which Liferay calls the model. This makes sense when you think about the functions users can perform:

  • Creating something new
  • Editing something that exists

Creating something new (like adding a new Blog entry) is different from accessing something that exists. A Blog owner should be able to create or edit a Blog entry, but a User or guest should have read permission for existing entries and no permission to create them.

Permission to create something new that doesn’t yet exist is a root model permission, whether that functionality is exposed in a portlet or not. Permission on an existing resource is a model permission.

Now you’re ready to define both your root model and model permissions.

  1. First, create the skeleton for your file:

    <?xml version="1.0"?>
    <!DOCTYPE resource-action-mapping PUBLIC "-//Liferay//DTD Resource Action Mapping 7.1.0//EN" "http://www.liferay.com/dtd/liferay-resource-action-mapping_7_0_0.dtd">
    
    <resource-action-mapping>
    
    </resource-action-mapping> 
    
  2. Inside the <resource-action-mapping> tags, use a <model-resource> tag to define permissions for the root model:

    <model-resource>
        <model-name>com.liferay.blogs</model-name>
        <portlet-ref>
            <portlet-name>com_liferay_blogs_web_portlet_BlogsAdminPortlet</portlet-name>
            <portlet-name>com_liferay_blogs_web_portlet_BlogsPortlet</portlet-name>
        </portlet-ref>
        <root>true</root>
        <weight>1</weight>
        <permissions>
            <supports>
                <action-key>ADD_ENTRY</action-key>
                <action-key>PERMISSIONS</action-key>
                <action-key>SUBSCRIBE</action-key>
            </supports>
            <site-member-defaults>
                <action-key>SUBSCRIBE</action-key>
            </site-member-defaults>
            <guest-defaults />
            <guest-unsupported>
                <action-key>ADD_ENTRY</action-key>
                <action-key>PERMISSIONS</action-key>
                <action-key>SUBSCRIBE</action-key>
            </guest-unsupported>
        </permissions>
    </model-resource>
    

    The model name (com.liferay.blogs) is just a package name. The <root>true</root> tag defines this as a root model. The <portlet-ref> element is the name of the portlet that uses the model. The <weight> tag defines the order of these permissions in the GUI. The permissions defined are ADD_ENTRY (add a Blog entry), PERMISSIONS (set permissions on Blog entries), and SUBSCRIBE (receive notifications when Blog entries are created). These are all root model permissions, because no primary key in the database can be assigned to any of these functions. The default permissions (for both model and portlet resources) are added when the portlet defined by the <portlet-ref> tag initializes.

  3. Finally, define your model permissions:

    <model-resource>
        <model-name>com.liferay.blogs.model.BlogsEntry</model-name>
        <portlet-ref>
            <portlet-name>com_liferay_blogs_web_portlet_BlogsAdminPortlet</portlet-name>
            <portlet-name>com_liferay_blogs_web_portlet_BlogsPortlet</portlet-name>
        </portlet-ref>
        <weight>2</weight>
        <permissions>
            <supports>
                <action-key>ADD_DISCUSSION</action-key>
                <action-key>DELETE</action-key>
                <action-key>DELETE_DISCUSSION</action-key>
                <action-key>PERMISSIONS</action-key>
                <action-key>UPDATE</action-key>
                <action-key>UPDATE_DISCUSSION</action-key>
                <action-key>VIEW</action-key>
            </supports>
            <site-member-defaults>
                <action-key>ADD_DISCUSSION</action-key>
                <action-key>VIEW</action-key>
            </site-member-defaults>
            <guest-defaults>
                <action-key>ADD_DISCUSSION</action-key>
                <action-key>VIEW</action-key>
            </guest-defaults>
            <guest-unsupported>
                <action-key>DELETE</action-key>
                <action-key>DELETE_DISCUSSION</action-key>
                <action-key>PERMISSIONS</action-key>
                <action-key>UPDATE</action-key>
                <action-key>UPDATE_DISCUSSION</action-key>
            </guest-unsupported>
        </permissions>
    </model-resource>
    

    Note the lack of a <root> tag, the fully qualified class name for the model, and the permissions that operate on an entity with a primary key.

Enabling Your Permissions Configuration

Your last step is to enable your permission definitions. Each module that contains a default.xml permissions definition file must also have a portlet.properties file with a property that defines where to find the permissions definition file. For your service and your web modules, create a portlet.properties file in src/main/resources and make sure it has this property:

resource.actions.configs=resource-actions/default.xml

Once you’ve defined portlet permissions, root model permissions, and model permissions, you’ve completed step 1 (the D in DRAC). Congratulations! You’re now ready to register the resources you’ve now defined in the permissions system.

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