Understanding Liferay Faces Bridge

The Liferay Faces Bridge enables you to deploy JSF web apps as portlets without writing portlet-specific code. It also contains innovative features that make it possible to leverage the power of JSF 2.x inside a portlet application.

Liferay Faces Bridge is distributed in a .jar file. You can add Liferay Faces Bridge as a dependency to your portlet projects, in order to deploy your JSF web applications as portlets within JSR 286 (Portlet 2.0) compliant portlet containers, like Liferay Portal 6.2.

The Liferay Faces Bridge project home page can be found here.

To fully understand Liferay Faces Bridge, you must first understand the portlet bridge standard. Because the Portlet 1.0 and JSF 1.0 specs were being created at essentially the same time, the Expert Group (EG) for the JSF specification constructed the JSF framework to be compliant with portlets. For example, the ExternalContext.getRequest() method returns an Object instead of an javax.servlet.http.HttpServletRequest. When this method is used in a portal, the Object can be cast to a javax.portlet.PortletRequest. Despite the EG’s consciousness of portlet compatibility within the design of JSF, the gap between the portlet and JSF lifecycles had to be bridged.

Portlet bridge standards and implementations evolved over time.

Starting in 2004, several different JSF portlet bridge implementations were developed in order to provide JSF developers with the ability to deploy their JSF web apps as portlets. In 2006, the JCP formed the Portlet Bridge 1.0 (JSR 301) EG in order to define a standard bridge API, as well as detailed requirements for bridge implementations. JSR 301 was released in 2010, targeting Portlet 1.0 and JSF 1.2.

When the Portlet 2.0 (JSR 286) standard was released in 2008, it became necessary for the JCP to form the Portlet Bridge 2.0 (JSR 329) EG. JSR 329 was also released in 2010, targeting Portlet 2.0 and JSF 1.2.

After the JSR 314 EG released JSF 2.0 in 2009 and JSF 2.1 in 2010, it became evident that a Portlet Bridge 3.0 standard would be beneficial. In 2015 the JCP formed [JSR 378] (http://www.jcp.org/en/jsr/detail?id=378)) which is defining a bridge for Portlet 3.0 and JSF 2.2. There are also variants of Liferay Faces Bridge that support Portlet 2.0 and JSF 1.2/2.1/2.2.

Liferay Faces Bridge is the Reference Implementation (RI) of the Portlet Bridge Standard. It also contains innovative features that make it possible to leverage the power of JSF 2.x inside a portlet application.

Now that you’re familiar with some of the history of the Portlet Bridge standards, you’ll learn about the responsibilities required of the portlet bridge.

A JSF portlet bridge aligns the correct phases of the JSF lifecycle with each phase of the portlet lifecycle. For instance, if a browser sends an HTTP GET request to a portal page with a JSF portlet in it, the RENDER_PHASE is perfomed in the portlet’s lifecycle. The JSF portlet bridge then initiates the RESTORE_VIEW and RENDER_RESPONSE phases in the JSF lifecycle. Likewise, when an HTTP POST is executed on a portlet and the portlet enters the ACTION_PHASE, then the full JSF lifecycle is initiated by the bridge.

Figure 1: The different phases of the JSF Lifecycle are executed depending on which phase of the Portlet lifecycle is being executed.

Figure 1: The different phases of the JSF Lifecycle are executed depending on which phase of the Portlet lifecycle is being executed.

Besides ensuring that the two lifecycles connect correctly, the JSF portlet bridge also acts as a mediator between the portal URL generator and JSF navigation rules. JSF portlet bridges ensure that URLs created by the portal comply with JSF navigation rules, so that a JSF portlet is able to switch to different views.

The JSR 329/378 standards defines several configuration options prefixed with the javax.portlet.faces namespace. Liferay Faces Bridge defines additional implementation-specific options prefixed with the com.liferay.faces.bridge namespace.

With the main aspects of JSF portlet bridges described, you can learn how a JSF application uses the bridge in the Creating a JSF Portlet learning path. Next, you’ll learn how to configure Liferay Faces Bridge, starting with configuring its scope behavior.

Configuring Bridge Request Scope Behavior

For this part of the tutorial, you’ll step through requirements, drawbacks, assumptions, and behaviors for configuring the Bridge Request Scope.

One of the key requirements in creating a JSF portlet bridge is managing JSF request-scoped data within the portlet lifecycle. This is normally referred to as the Bridge Request Scope by JSR 329/378. The lifespan of the Bridge Request Scope works like this:

  1. ActionRequest/EventRequest: BridgeRequestScope begins.

  2. RenderRequest: BridgeRequestScope is preserved.

  3. Subsequent RenderRequest: BridgeRequestScope is reused.

  4. Subsequent ActionRequest/EventRequest: BridgeRequestScope ends, and a new BridgeRequestScope begins.

  5. If the session expires or is invalidated, then similar to the PortletSession scope, all BridgeRequestScope instances associated with the session are made available for garbage collection by the JVM.

The main use-case for having the BridgeRequestScope preserved in Step 2 (above) is for re-rendering portlets. Consider the following example that illustrates this use-case.

Suppose two or more JSF portlets are placed on a portal page (Portlets X and Y), and those portlets are not using f:ajax for form submission. In such a case, if the user were to submit a form (via full ActionRequest postback) in Portlet X, and then submit a form in Portlet Y, then Portlet X should be re-rendered with its previously submitted form data.

With the advent of JSF 2.x and Ajax, there were four drawbacks for continuing to support this use-case as the default behavior:

  • Request-scoped data is basically semi-session-scoped in nature, because the BridgeRequestScope is preserved (even though the user might never click the Submit button again).
  • BridgeRequestScope can’t be stored in the PortletSession because the data is request-scoped in nature, and the data stored in the scope isn’t guaranteed to be Serializable for replication. Therefore, it doesn’t really work well in a clustered deployment.
  • The developer might have to specify the javax.portlet.faces.MAX_MANAGED_REQUEST_SCOPES <init-param> in the WEB-INF/web.xml descriptor in order to tune the memory settings on the server.

As result, Liferay Faces Bridge was designed for JSF 2.x, and keeps Ajax in mind. The Liferay Faces Bridge makes the following assumptions:

  • Developers are not primarily concerned about the re-rendering of portlets use-case mentioned above.
  • Developers don’t want any of the drawbacks mentioned above.
  • Developers are making heavy use of the f:ajax tag and submitting forms via Ajax with their modern-day portlets.
  • Developers want to do as little configuration as possible and don’t want to be forced to add anything to the WEB-INF/web.xml descriptor.

Consequently, the default behavior of Liferay Faces Bridge is to cause the BridgeRequestScope to end at the end of the RenderRequest.

If you prefer the standard behavior over Liferay Faces Bridge’s default behavior, then you can place the following option in your portlet’s WEB-INF/web.xml descriptor:



The default value of the com.liferay.faces.bridge.bridgeRequestScopePreserved param is false, meaning that Liferay Faces Bridge causes the BridgeRequestScope to end after the RENDER_PHASE of the portlet lifecycle. Setting the value to true causes Liferay Faces Bridge to allow the BridgeRequestScope to last until the next ACTION_PHASE or EVENT_PHASE of the portlet lifecycle.

The default value of the javax.portlet.faces.MAX_MANAGED_REQUEST_SCOPES param is 100. It defines the maximum number of BridgeRequestScope instances to keep in memory on the server if the bridgeRequestScopePreserved option is true.

Alternatively, the com.liferay.faces.bridge.bridgeRequestScopePreserved value can be specified on a portlet-by-portlet basis in the WEB-INF/portlet.xml descriptor.

Now you know the two options for Bridge Request Scope behavior. By considering the outlined assumptions and drawbacks, you should be able to make an educated decision about how you’d like to implement the Bridge Request Scope behavior.

Configuring the Portlet Container Abilities

Liferay Faces Bridge can be run in a variety of portlet containers (Liferay, Pluto, etc.) and is aware of some of the abilities (or limitations) of these containers. For this part of the tutorial, you’ll see how to configure a portlet container in Liferay Faces Bridge.

Liferay Faces Bridge enables you to configure the abilities of the portlet container in the portlet project’s WEB-INF/web.xml descriptor.

An example of configuring the abilities of the portlet container can be found in the code snippet below:


The default value of the context-param depends on which portlet container the bridge is running in. The value determines whether or not the bridge resource handler attempts to set the status code of downloaded resources to values like HttpServletResponse.SC_NOT_MODIFIED.

By configuring portlet container capabilities, you can take advantage of your portlet container’s specific strengths while using Liferay Faces Bridge.

Configuring XML Entity Validation

Liferay Faces Bridge lets you enable or disable XML validation for all faces-config.xml file entities. This part of the tutorial shows you how!

By default, validation is disabled. To enable XML validation for all faces-config.xml file entities, you can set the option to true in the portlet project’s WEB-INF/web.xml descriptor:


Excellent! You now know how to toggle XML entity validation using Liferay Faces Bridge.

Configuring Resource Buffer Size

Liferay Faces Bridge lets you set the size of the buffer used to load resources into memory, as file contents are copied to the response. This part of the tutorial demonstrates how to configure this setting.

You can configure the resource buffer size in the portlet project’s WEB-INF/web.xml descriptor:


The default value of this context-param is 1024 (1KB).

Alternatively, you can specify the com.liferay.faces.bridge.resourceBufferSize value on a portlet-by-portlet basis in the portlet project’s WEB-INF/portlet.xml descriptor.

Configuring Distinct Request Scoped Managed Beans

Liferay Portal gives you the ability to specify whether or not request attributes are shared among portlets. You can specify this using the <private-request-attributes> element in the portlet project’s WEB-INF/liferay-portlet.xml descriptor. The default value of this option is true, meaning that request attributes are not shared among portlets.






This non-shared feature, however, only works for request attributes that are present in the request map and that have a non-null value. This can cause a problem for JSF managed-beans in request scope. Specifically, the problem arises when a portal page has two or more portlets that have a request scope managed bean with the same name.

For example, suppose Portlet X and Portlet Y each have a class named BackingBean annotated with @RequestScoped @ManagedBean. When the JSF runtime is asked to resolve an EL-expression #{backingBean}, there is no guarantee that the correct instance will be resolved. In order to solve this problem, Liferay Faces Bridge provides a configuration option that can be specified in the portlet project’s WEB-INF/web.xml. It causes request-scoped managed beans to be distinct for each portlet.


The default value of this context-param is false. To ensure that @RequestScoped managed beans are resolved correctly for each portlet, set this value to true.

Great! You can now configure distinct request scoped managed beans with Liferay Faces Bridge.

Configuring View Parameters

In the case of a portlet RenderRequest, Section 5.2.6 of the JSR 329/378 Spec requires that the bridge only executes the RESTORE_VIEW and RENDER_RESPONSE phases of the JSF lifecycle. In addition, Section 6.4 requires that a PhaseListener be used to skip the APPLY_REQUEST_VALUES, PROCESS_VALIDATIONS, UPDATE_MODEL_VALUES, and INVOKE_APPLICATION phases. These requirements are valid for JSF 1.2, but for JSF 2.x View Parameters, the presence of f:metadata and f:viewParam in a Facelet view, makes the entire JSF lifecycle run.

Liferay Faces Bridge enables support for View Parameters by default, but provides a configuration option that you can specify in the portlet project’s WEB-INF/web.xml descriptor to disable the feature.


The param’s default value is true. If you’re using JSF 1.2, you should set the param value to false.

Great! You’ve learned another JSF portlet bridge standard and how to configure several key options in Liferay Faces Bridge.

Understanding Liferay Faces Alloy

Understanding Liferay Faces Portal

Creating and Deploying JSF Portlets

Developing Liferay Faces Portlets with Maven

Specifying and Using Portlet Preferences with JSF

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