Patching Liferay

EE Only Feature

While we strive for perfection with every release of Liferay Portal, the reality of the human condition dictates that releases of the product may not be as perfect as originally intended. But we’ve planned for that. Included with every Liferay bundle is a Patching Tool that can handle the installation of two types of patches: hotfixes and fix packs.

A hotfix is provided to a customer when a customer contacts Liferay about an issue, and Liferay’s support team–working with the customer–determines that the problem is indeed an issue with the product that needs to be fixed. Support fixes the bug and provides a hotfix to the customer immediately. This is a short-term fix that solves the issue for the customer as quickly as possible. On a regular schedule, these hotfixes are bundled together into fix packs. Fix packs are provided to all of Liferay’s customers.

Now that you know what patching is all about, let’s check out the tool.

Installing the Patching Tool

If you’re using a Liferay bundle, congratulations! The Patching Tool is already installed. Your job isn’t done yet, however, because Liferay might have updated the Patching Tool. Always check the Customer Portal to see if the Patching Tool has been updated first. But even if you forget to check, the Patching Tool will tell you if it needs to be updated when you run it. A lot of planning and forethought has gone into the patching system to make it run as smoothly as possible.

You follow the same procedure whether you’re installing or upgrading the Patching Tool. Once you’ve obtained it from the customer portal, unzip it to the Liferay Home folder. This is the folder where you’ve placed your file and where by default the data folder resides. This is generally one folder up from where your application server is installed, but some application servers are different. If you don’t know where Liferay Home is on your system, check chapter 14 to see where this folder is for your specific application server.

If you’re upgrading the Patching Tool, all you need to do is unzip the new version on top of the old version. Note that if you’re doing this on LUM (Linux, Unix, Mac) machines, you’ll need to make the script executable.

After the Patching Tool is installed, you need to let it auto-discover your Liferay installation. Then it will determine what your release level is and what your application server environment is. This is a simple command to run on LUM:

./ auto-discovery

or on Windows:

patching-tool auto-discovery

From here on, for brevity we’ll use the LUM version of the command. Why? Because Liferay is open source; there’s no open source variant of Windows (ReactOS is still in alpha, so it doesn’t count); and therefore my (RS) unscientific impression is that more people will run Liferay on open source technology than not. If I’m wrong, I’m wrong, but there are still many other examples of documentation that defaults to Windows, so we still get to be different.

If you’ve installed the Patching Tool in a non-standard location, you’ll have to give this command another parameter to point it to your Liferay installation. For example, if you’ve installed a Liferay/Tomcat bundle in /opt/Liferay, you’d issue this command:

./ auto-discovery /opt/Liferay/tomcat-7.0.21

In all, this is pretty simple. Now that you’ve installed the Patching Tool, you’re ready to download and install patches. You can install patches manually or automatically. For automatic patch installation, you need to set up the Patching Tool Agent. This is presented next.

Configuring the Patching Tool Agent

The Patching Tool Agent automatically installs downloaded patches on server startup. For the agent to start with your server, you need to set the javaagent property in the JVM options. Make sure that you specify the correct file path to the patching-tool-agent.jar. Here’s an example of setting the javaagent property:


When the agent runs, it tries to find the Patching Tool’s home folder. If your Patching Tool is installed in a location other than the Liferay Home folder, you must specify the path of the patching-tool folder as a JVM argument for the app server. This is done with the patching.tool.home property. For example:


There are also a few other things to consider when using the agent. Due to class loading issues, the agent starts in a separate JVM. You can specify options for it by using the patching.tool.agent.jvm.opts property. For example:

-Dpatching.tool.agent.jvm.opts="-Xmx1024m -Xms512m"

You may also experience issues on Windows if the user starting the app server doesn’t have administrator privileges. Here are some examples of the errors you may see:

`java.nio.file.FileSystemException: ..\tomcat-7.0.42\webapps\ROOT\WEB-INF\lib\util-java.jar: Not a file!`
` Access refused`

To solve this, set the system property as follows in the patching.tool.agent.jvm.opts property:

-Dpatching.tool.agent.jvm.opts="-Xmx1024m -Xms512m"

The agent also has some flags you can set to control how it behaves:

  • debug: Provides verbose output in the console.
  • nohalt: Starts the portal even if the agent encounters an issue.

You can specify these as follows:,nohalt

Now let’s see how to use the Patching Tool to get your patches installed.

Installing patches

The absolute first thing you must do when installing one or more patches is to shut down your server. On Windows operating systems, files that are in use are locked by the OS, and won’t be patched. On LUM systems, you can generally replace files that are running, but of course that still leaves the old ones loaded in memory. So your best bet is to shut down the application server that’s running Liferay before you install a patch.

Liferay distributes patches as .zip files, whether they are hotfixes or fix packs. When you receive one, either via a LESA ticket (hotfix) or through downloading a fix pack from the customer portal, you’ll need to place it in the patches folder, which is inside the Patching Tool’s home folder. Once you’ve done that, it’s a simple matter to install it. First, execute

./ info

This shows you a list of patches you’ve already installed, along with a list of patches that can be installed, from what’s in the patches folder. To use the Patching Tool Agent to install the patches, restart the server. The agent takes care of the rest.

To install the available patches manually, use the following steps. First, issue the following command:

./ install

Liferay copies files into the plugins in deployment time. If these files are patched in the portal, they need to be updated in the plugins as well. In these cases, the Patching Tool notifies you about the change. You can run the following command to update these files automatically:

./ update-plugins

If you do not wish to have the Patching Tool update the plugins, it’s enough to re-deploy them. If there are new indexes created by the patch, the Patching Tool notifies you to update them. To get the list, run this command:

./ index-info

As there’s no database connection at patching time, the indexes need to be created at portal startup. In order to get the indexes automatically created, add the following line to the file if the server has permissions to modify the indexes on the database:


Otherwise, you have to create the indexes manually. Check the output of the ./patching-tool index-info command for more details.

Once your patches have been installed, you can verify them by using the ./ info command, which now shows your patch in the list of installed patches. Next, let’s look now at how to manage your patches.

Handling hotfixes and patches

As stated above, hotfixes are short term fixes provided as quickly as possible and fix packs are larger bundles of hotfixes provided to all customers at regular intervals. If you already have a hotfix installed, and the fix pack which contains that hotfix is released, you can rest assured the Patching Tool will manage this for you. Fix packs always supersede hotfixes, so when you install your fix pack, the hotfix that it already contains is uninstalled, and the fix pack version is installed in its place.

Sometimes there can be a fix to a fix pack. This is also handled automatically. If a new version of a fix pack is released, you can use the Patching Tool to install it. The Patching Tool uninstalls the old fix pack and installs the new version in its place.

Additional notes

If you customized the Application Server’s web.xml, you should manually check and update this file after a patch has applied on your environment as it will be overwritten during the patching process in case the patch contains updates on this file.

In order to determine if a patch contains such a modification, please utilize the diff command described below in the new features paragraph.

Fix pack dependencies

Some hotfix require a fix pack to be installed first. If you attempt to install a hotfix that depends on a fix pack, the Patching Tool notifies you of this so you can go to the customer portal and obtain the hotfix dependency. Once all the necessary patches are available in the patches folder, the Patching Tool will install them.

The Patching Tool can also remove patches.

Removing or reverting patches

Have you noticed that the Patching Tool only seems to have an install command? This is because patches are managed not by the command, but by what appears in the patches folder. You manage the patches you have installed by adding or removing patches from this folder. If you currently have a patch installed and you don’t want it installed, remove it from the patches folder. Then run the ./ install command, and the patch is removed.

If you want to remove all patches you’ve installed, use the ./ revert command. This removes all patches from your installation.

What we’ve described so far is the simplest way to use the Patching Tool, but you can also use the Patching Tool in the most complex, multi-VM, clustered environments. This is done by using profiles.

Using profiles with the Patching Tool

When you ran the auto-discovery task after installing the Patching Tool, it created a default profile that points to the application server it discovered. This is the easiest way to use the Patching Tool, and is great for smaller, single server installations. But we realize many Liferay installations are sized accordingly to serve millions of pages per day, and the Patching Tool has been designed for this as well. So if you’re running a small, medium, or large cluster of Liferay machines, you can use the Patching Tool to manage all of them using profiles.

The auto-discovery task creates a properties file called This file contains the detected configuration for your application server. But you’re not limited to only one server which the tool can detect. You can have it auto-discover other runtimes, or you can manually create new profiles yourself.

To have the Patching Tool auto-discover other runtimes, you’ll need to use a few more command line parameters:

./ [name of profile] auto-discovery [path/to/runtime]

This will run the same discovery process, but on a path you choose, and the profile information will go into a [your profile name].properties file.

Alternatively, you can manually create your profiles. Using a text editor, create a [profile name].properties file in the same folder as the patching tool script. You can place the following properties in the file:

patching.mode: This can be binary (the default) or source, if you’re patching the source tree you’re working with. Liferay patches contain both binary and source patches. If your development team is extending Liferay, you’ll want to provide the patches you install to your development team so they can patch their source tree.

patches.folder: Specify the location where you’ll copy your patches. By default, this is ./patches.

war.path: This is a property for which you specify the location of the Liferay installation inside your application server. Alternatively, you can specify a .war file here, and you’ll be able to patch a Liferay .war for installation to your application server.

global.lib.path: Specify the location where .jar files on the global classpath are stored. If you’re not sure, search for your portal-service.jar file; it’s on the global classpath. This property is only valid if your patching.mode is binary.

source.path: Specify the location of your Liferay source tree. This property is only valid if your patching.mode is source.

You can have as many profiles as you want, and use the same Patching Tool to patch all of them. This helps to keep all your installations in sync.

New features

Starting with Version 18 of the Patching Tool, we have included some major improvements that provide assistance to developers for detecting the source changes introduced by the patches.

Diff command

./ diff

This command prints the differences between two patch levels to the output. At least one stored patch level must be available for the tool.

There are two modes of this command: full and collisions:

  • full: This compares all the patches in the two stored patch levels and prints the differences based on the options.

  • collisions: Limits the comparison to the files which are also modified by the plugins installed in the system. Additionally you can give further options to filter the output to source, files and fixed-issues:

  • source: You will receive an output of the source differences between the two patch levels.

  • files: The output will contain only the file names.

  • fixed-issues: You will receive a list of LPEs. Liferay Support uses these numbers to track certain fixes.

For the detailed usage information, please run ./patching-tool help diff command.

Store command

./ store

Manages patching level information for diff command. The command needs patches with sources to be able to prepare usable information for the diff command and to be able to store the actual patch level.

There are four options of the store command:

  • info: Prints the list of patches which build up the stored patch level.
  • add: This option stores the patch level which can be found in the patches directory.
  • update: Add or update patch level information.
  • rm: Removes a previously stored patch level information.

Please find the usage details by running the ./patching-tool help store command.

Now that you know how to patch an existing installation of Liferay, let’s turn to how you’d upgrade Liferay from an older release to the current release.

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